Agriculture remains one the most important means of livelihood for the people of Amethi. Despite growing employment opportunities in the district owing to accelerated industrialisation, agriculture is preferred by a large section of people in Amethi. A few decades ago, in the early 1980s, majority of the land in Amethi was barren and alkaline making agriculture impossible. There was no food production and the farmers could barely produce enough to survive. When Rajiv Gandhi was elected as an MP from the district, he undertook immediate measures to redress this situation. He invited the Indian Farmers Fertiliser Cooperative (IFFCO) and other expert bodies to make the land cultivable. After persistent efforts over many years, farming became a feasible economic activity. The farmers were also introduced to modern techniques of agriculture and proper irrigation facilities were provided to help them effectively cultivate the land.
When Rahul Gandhi was elected as MP in 2004, he prioritised the needs and requirements of the farmers and made provisions to create an environment conducive to farming. In an effort to continue the measures initiated by Rajiv Gandhi to nurture agricultural growth, he introduced new farming methods like compost harvesting which served to expand agricultural production. Today, Amethi has a wide expanse of lush green fields and forests, spread out over an area of 144683 hectares of cultivable land of which 129766 hectares has provisions for irrigation. There are also nine centres of Indian Farm Forestry Development Cooperative Ltd (IFFCO) which coordinates farm forestry and ecological resilience in the area.
Amethi has also developed a sophisticated system of dairy production which has led to increase in the production of milk. The National Dairy Development Board has an Animal Breeding Centre here. Chiller points and 107 dairy farms set up across the district have also enhanced the production, storage and distribution capacity.